Marine oil pollution
The toxicity and physical properties of oil change over time. In fact, as top carnivores that feed on large pelagic fish and seals, polar bears and killer whales are less likely to be exposed to petroleum in their food than other species, such as walrus and baleen whales, which feed on zooplankton and benthic invertebrates.
Reference [ 29 ] compared the toxicity of a new dispersant, Superdispersant SDto Corexit using four species of marine invertebrates at 15 C. After the spill inthe biomass values for the sand community immediately fell.
Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters, and the water repellency of a bird's feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh elements.
This causes dysfunctions of the central nervous system [ 25 ]. In this case, currents bring the oil towards coastal areas which harms coastal organisms like invertebrates, mammals and birds. Animals who rely on scent to find their babies or mothers cannot due to the strong scent of the oil.
Recent oil spills 2018
Analyses of tests conducted on a variety of species of aquatic life showed that crustaceans are more sensitive to oil dispersant exposure, compared with fish [ 28 ]. They can also delay the formation of persistent oil-in-water emulsions. However, microorganisms such as Fusobacteria species demonstrate an innovative potential for future oil spill cleanup because of their ability to colonize and degrade oil slicks on the sea surface. It has been shown that the use of oil dispersants increases the exposure and uptake of PAHs by fish. As corals are very sensitive to oil detergents and dispersed oil, the results of these assays indicated the negative and harmful effect of using any oil dispersant in coral reefs and in the area closely around them. The standing crop biomass and productivity was restored much more rapidly as the ecological niches had been occupied by other opportunists like the bivalve Abra and the worm Nephtys. One major effect of oil is narcosis, a reversible anaesthetic effect caused by the oil partitioning into the cell membrane and nervous tissue. It can influence or control the primary productivity by top-down effects [ 33 ] in return. The speed and relative importance of these processes depend on a number of factors. They additionally include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs such as naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene.
based on 60 review